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18 february 2024 current affairs







Defence Acquisition Council (DAC)

  • The DAC is the highest decision-making body of the defence Ministry on procurement. Objective: To ensure expeditious procurement of the approved requirements of the armed forces. Formation: It was formed after the Group of Minister's recommendations on 'Reforming the National Security System', in 2001, post-Kargil War (1999).


  • The defence minister is the chairman of DAC.
  • Its members include the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and chiefs of the Army, Navy, and Air Force.

Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA):

  • CCPA is a regulatory body established in 2020 based on the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
  • CCPA works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Consumer Affairs.


  • It will have a Chief Commissioner as head, and only two other commissioners as members — one of whom will deal with matters relating to goods while the other will look into cases relating to services.
  • The CCPA will have an Investigation Wing that will be headed by a Director General.
  • District Collectors too, will have the power to investigate complaints of violations of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and false or misleading advertisements.

Powers and Functions:

  • Inquire or investigate into matters relating to violations of consumer rights or unfair trade practices suo moto, or on a complaint received, or on a direction from the central government.
  • Impose a penalty up to Rs 10 lakh, with imprisonment up to two years, on the manufacturer or endorser of false and misleading advertisements. The penalty may go up to Rs 50 lakh, with imprisonment up to five years, for every subsequent offence committed by the same manufacturer or endorser.
  • Ban the endorser of a false or misleading advertisement from making endorsement of any products or services in the future, for a period that may extend to one year. The ban may extend up to three years in every subsequent violation of the Act.
  • File complaints of violation of consumer rights or unfair trade practices before the District Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, and the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission.

About Consumer Protection Act 2019 Definition of consumer:

  • A consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or avails a service for a consideration.
  • It does not include a person who obtains a good for resale or a good or service for commercial purpose.
  • It covers transactions through all modes including offline, and online through electronic means, teleshopping, multi-level marketing or direct selling.
  • The Act defines “misleading advertisement” in relation to any product or service, as “an advertisement, which—(i) falsely describes such product or service; or (ii) gives a false guarantee to, or is likely to mislead the consumers as to the nature, substance, quantity or quality of such product or service; or (iii) conveys an express or implied representation which, if made by the manufacturer or seller or service provider thereof, would constitute an unfair trade practice; or (iv) deliberately conceals important information”.
  • Rights of consumers: Six consumer rights have been defined in the Act, including the right to: right to safety, right to be Informed, right to choose, right to be heard, right to seek redressal and right to consumer education.


  • Chabahar is Iran's only oceanic port. It is situated in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, on the Makran coast.  There are two main ports in Chabahar – the Shahid Kalantari port and the Shahid Beheshti port.
  • The Shahid Kalantari port was developed in the 1980s.
  • Iran had offered India the project of developing the Shahid Beheshti port which was well received by India.

Significance of Chabahar Port:

  • Alternative Trade Route: Historically, India's access to Afghanistan and Central Asia has been largely dependent on transit routes through Pakistan.
  • Chabahar Port offers an alternative route that bypasses Pakistan, reducing India's reliance on its neighbor for trade with Afghanistan and beyond.
  • This is particularly important given the often-tense relations between India and Pakistan.
  • Also, Chabahar port will boost India's access to Iran, the key gateway to the International North-South Transport Corridor that has sea, rail and road routes between India, Iran, Russia, Central Asia and Europe.

Economic Benefits:

  • Chabahar Port offers India a gateway to the resourcerich and economically vibrant region of Central Asia.
  • It can significantly enhance India's trade and investment opportunities in these markets, potentially leading to economic growth and job creation in India. Humanitarian Assistance:
  • Chabahar Port can serve as a crucial entry point for humanitarian assistance and reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan.
  • India can use the port to provide aid, infrastructure development support, and other assistance to Afghanistan, contributing to regional stability. India Iran Relations
  • Iran is an important nation in India’s neighborhood and in fact, the two countries shared a border until India’s partition and independence in 1947. Significance of India-Iran Relation Location and Connectivity:
  • Iran is located at a strategic and crucial geographical location between the Persian gulf and the Caspian Sea.
  • Iran is important to India as it provides an alternate route of connectivity to Afghanistan and Central Asian republics through Chabahar port without passing the land route through Pakistan.

Cheaper Crude Oil: 

  • Since, Iran is one of the largest deposits of crude oil and natural gas in the world.
  • India may well consider restarting oil imports from Iran. If India changes course and resumes imports of Iranian oil, it could potentially encourage some other countries to follow suit and open up additional oil in the market, which could eventually bring prices of crude oil down.

Connectivity with Eurasia:

  • The International Nort South Transport Corridor (INSTC), aims to connect India, Iran, Afghanistan, Russia, Central Asia, and Europe through multi-modal transport, reducing the transit time of goods drastically.
  • Although some part of it has been operationalized, again, due to sanctions on Iran, its full potential has not been realised. India and Iran could well play a major part in giving INSTC the required boost to reap the benefits of resultant trade.